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American Journal of SociologyAJS

Volume 115, Number 5, March 2010, pp. 1351-1670



V  Contributors




Theorizing the Restlessness of Events1

Robin Wagner-Pacifici

Swarthmore College

Abstract: This article offers a theoretical and methodological system for a sociological analysis of the restless nature of historical events. This system, political semiosis, is able to identify and assess the performative speech acts, the demonstrative orientational specifications, and the mimetic representations required to advance historical transformations. The features of political semiosis structure the flow of historical events by managing the specific media and generic forms that are the vehicles through which events take shape. Political semiosis provides a method for analyzing both the circulation and the materialization of events. The exemplary case of September 11 illuminates this approach's capabilities.





Social Influence and the Autism Epidemic

KaYuet Liu,

Marissa King, and

Peter S. Bearman

Columbia University

Abstract: Despite a plethora of studies, we do not know why autism incidence has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Using California data, this study shows that children living very close to a child previously diagnosed with autism are more likely to be diagnosed with autism. An underlying social influence mechanism involving information diffusion drives this result, contributing to 16% of the increase in prevalence over 2000–2005. We eliminate competing explanations (i.e., residential sorting, environmental toxicants, and viral transmission) through seven tests and show that information diffusion simultaneously contributed to the increased prevalence, spatial clustering, and decreasing age of diagnosis.





Migrants’ Competing Commitments: Sexual Partners in Urban Africa and Remittances to the Rural Origin

Nancy Luke

Brown University

Abstract: Migrants form nonfamilial ties in urban destinations, which could compete with origin families for a share of remittances. A framework of competing commitment predicts that new relationships affect remittances depending on the extent to which they substitute for the benefits provided by origin families. Analyses of data from urban migrants in Kenya show that serious nonmarital sexual partners substitute for psychosocial support from the rural family and that material transfers migrants give to these partners significantly reduce remittances. The findings have implications for the ways scholars conceive of competition, the nature of exchange, and substitution of support across intimate relationships.





Gender Inequality in the Welfare State: Sex Segregation in Housework, 1965–2003

Jennifer L. Hook

University of Washington

Abstract: National context may influence sex segregation of household tasks through both pragmatic decision making and the normative context in which decision making is embedded. This study utilizes 36 time use surveys from 19 countries (spanning 1965–2003) combined with original national-level data in multilevel models to examine household task segregation. Analyses reveal that men do less and women do more time-inflexible housework in nations where work hours and parental leave are long. Women do less of this work where there is more public child care and men are eligible to take parental leave. National context affects the character of gender inequality in the home through individual- and national-level pathways





Earnings Inequality and the Changing Association between Spouses’ Earnings

Christine R. Schwartz

University of Wisconsin—Madison


Abstract: Increases in the association between spouses' earnings have the potential to increase inequality as marriages increasingly consist of two high-earning or two low-earning partners. This article uses log-linear models and data from the March Current Population Survey to describe trends in the association between spouses' earnings and estimate their contribution to growing earnings inequality among married couples from 1967 to 2005. The results indicate that increases in earnings inequality would have been about 25%–30% lower than observed in the absence of changes in the association, depending on the inequality measure used. Three components of these changes and how they vary across the earnings distribution are explored.




P 1558

Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity, and Residential Segregation

Ann H. Kim

York University

Michael J. White

Brown University

Abstract: The theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns are considered while simultaneously evaluating the “panethnic hypothesis,” the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Results show a panethnic effect—greater residential proximity within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area—that is dependent on immigration. A lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups is observed for blacks, whites, and Latinos, and less for Asians, yet ethnonational groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context.


Book Reviews

P 1597

Citizen Employers: Business Communities and Labor in Cincinnati and San Francisco, by Jeffrey Haydu. Ithaca

Berch Berberoglu



The Making of Prolife Activists: How Social Movement Mobilization Works by Ziad W. Munson

Jenny Irons



Why David Sometimes Wins: Leadership, Organization, and Strategy in the California Farm Worker Movement by Marshall Ganz

Howard Kimeldorf



Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes by Arturo Escobar

Pierre Hamel



Environmental Organizations in Modern Germany: Hardy Survivors in the Twentieth Century and Beyond by William T. Markham

Mario Diani



Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s by Marion Fourcade

John L. Campbell



Privatizing Pensions: The Transnational Campaign for Social Security Reform by Mitchell A. Orenstein

Andrew Roberts



Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children, and Consumer Culture by Allison J. Pugh

Lydia Martens


P 1614

A Historical Sociology of Childhood: Developmental Thinking, Categorization, and Graphic Visualization by André Turmel

Colin Heywood


P 1616

Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng’s China by Susan Greenhalgh

Saul Halfon


P 1619

Village China under Socialism and Reform: A Microhistory, 1948–2008 by Huaiyin Li. Stanford

Yusheng Peng


P 1621

The People’s Peking Man: Popular Science and Human Identity in TwentiethCentury China by Sigrid Schmalzer

David A. Palmer


 P 1623

The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation by Steven Shapin

Trevor Pinch


 P 1625

Living in a Material World: Economic Sociology Meets Science and Technology Studies, edited by Trevor Pinch and Richard Swedberg

Steve Fuller


 P 1628

The Dividends of Dissent: How Conflict and Culture Work in Lesbian and Gay Marches on Washington by Amin Ghaziani

Nancy Whittier


P 1630

How the Religious Right Shaped Lesbian and Gay Activism by Tina Fetner

Andrea Smith


 P 1632

Immigration and Religion in America: Comparative and Historical Perspectives, edited by Richard Alba, Albert J. Raboteau, and Josh DeWind

Wendy Cadge


 P 1635

Migration Miracle: Faith, Hope, and Meaning on the Undocumented Journey by Jacqueline Maria Hagan

Stephanie J. Nawyn


 P 1637

Charisma and Compassion: Cheng Yen and the Buddhist Tzu Chi Movement by C. Julia Huang

Rebecca A. Allahyari


 P 1639

Immigrant Ambassadors: Citizenship and Belonging in the Tibetan Diaspora by Julia Meredith Hess

Kenneth Liberman



 P 1641

Political Disaffection in Cuba’s Revolution and Exodus by Silvia Pedraza

Sarah Blue


 P 1644

The Plot to Kill God: Findings from the Soviet Experiment in Secularization by Paul Froese

Shirin Akiner


 P 1646

Crisis and the Everyday in Postsocialist Moscow by Olga Shevchenko

Balázs Vedres


P 1648

States against Migrants: Deportation in Germany and the United States by Antje Ellermann

Ryan King


 P 1650

The Logics and Politics of Post–WWII Migration to Western Europe by Anthony M. Messina.

Irene Bloemraad


P 1653

Ethnic Solidarity for Economic Survival: Korean Greengrocers in New York City by Pyong Gap Min

Eric Fong


P 1655

The Force of Domesticity: Filipina Migrants and Globalization by Rhacel Salazar Parreñas

Yen Le Espiritu


P 1657

Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen by Lisa Wedeen

Robin WagnerPacifici


P 1659

Under Construction: Making Homeland Security at the Local Level by Kerry B. Fosher

Diane Vaughan


P 1661

Unequal Crime Decline: Theorizing Race, Urban Inequality, and Criminal Violence by Karen F. Parker

Andrew V. Papachristos


P 1664

Caste, Class, and Race by Oliver Cromwell Cox

Barbara Celarent