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American Journal of SociologyAJS

Volume 116, Number 2, September 2010, pp. 341-728



V  Contributors


The Oncomouse That Roared: Hybrid Exchange Strategies as a Source of Distinction at the Boundary of Overlapping Institutions

Fiona Murray

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Abstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that when institutional logics overlap, the production of hybrids signifies collapse, blending, or easy coexistence. The author provides an alternative interpretation: hybrids can maintain a distinctive boundary and can emerge from contestation, not coexistence. This alternative interpretation is grounded in an analysis of a critical moment at the academic-commercial boundary: the enforcement of patents to a key technology on academic geneticists. In their reaction to commercial encroachment, skilled actors (scientists) took the resources of the commercial logic and transformed their meaning to establish hybrid strategies that preserved the distinctive institutions. Thus, hybrids must be reconsidered as emerging from conflict and produced through boundary work to maintain the distinction and resilience of logics.





Industry Induces Academic Science to Know Less about More

James A. Evans

University of Chicago

Abstract: How does collaboration between academic research and industry shape science? This article argues that companies' relative indifference to theory nudges their academic partners toward novel, theoretically unanticipated experiments. The article then evaluates this proposition using fieldwork, archival materials, and panel models of all academic research using the popular plant model Arabidopsis thaliana and the companies that support that research. Findings suggest that industry partnerships draw high-status academics away from confirming theories and toward speculation. For the network of scientific ideas surrounding Arabidopsis, industry sponsorship weaves discoveries around the periphery into looser, more expansive knowledge. Government funding plays a complementary role, sponsoring focused scientific activity in dense hubs that facilitate scientific community and understanding.





Three Worlds of Relief: Race, Immigration, and Public and Private Social Welfare Spending in American Cities, 1929

Cybelle Fox

University of California, Berkeley

Abstract: Using a data set of public and private relief spending for 295 cities, this article examines the racial and ethnic patterning of social welfare provision in the United States in 1929. On the eve of the Depression, cities with more blacks or Mexicans spent the least on social assistance and relied more heavily on private money to fund their programs. Cities with more European immigrants spent the most on relief and relied more heavily on public funding. Distinct political systems, labor market relations, and racial ideologies about each group’s proclivity to use relief best explain relief spending differences across cities.





A Multilevel Systemic Model of Community Attachment: Assessing the Relative Importance of the Community and Individual Levels

Jeremy Flaherty

Ralph B. Brown

Brigham Young University

Abstract: To what extent does community context affect individuals’ social ties and levels of community attachment? The authors replicate Sampson’s multilevel version of Kasarda and Janowitz’s systemic model of community using data from a survey of nearly 10,000 people residing in 99 small Iowa communities. They improve on Sampson’s work by using multilevel statistical tools, better measurement of community attachment, and data from 99 actual communities. While the authors find general support for the systemic model, their results suggest that the community one lives in actually has little effect on one’s level of community attachment, calling into question many of the basic assumptions and findings of past community research.





Settling Down and Aging Out: Toward an Interactionist Theory of Desistance and the Transition to Adulthood1

Michael Massoglia

Pennsylvania State University

Christopher Uggen

University of Minnesota

Abstract: Conceptions of adulthood have changed dramatically in recent decades. Despite such changes, however, the notion that young people will eventually “settle down” and desist from delinquent behaviors is remarkably persistent. This article unites criminology with classic work on age norms and role behavior to contend that people who persist in delinquency will be less likely to make timely adult transitions. The empirical analysis supports this proposition, with both arrest and self-reported crime blocking the passage to adult status. The authors conclude that desisting from delinquency is an important part of the package of role behaviors that define adulthood.





Beyond and Below Racial Homophily: ERG Models of a Friendship Network Documented on Facebook

Andreas Wimmer

University of California, Los Angeles

Kevin Lewis

Harvard University

Abstract: A notable feature of U.S. social networks is their high degree of racial homogeneity, which is often attributed to racial homophily—the preference for associating with individuals of the same racial background. The authors unpack racial homogeneity using a theoretical framework that distinguishes between various tie formation mechanisms and their effects on the racial composition of networks, exponential random graph modeling that can disentangle these mechanisms empirically, and a rich new data set based on the Facebook pages of a cohort of college students. They first show that racial homogeneity results not only from racial homophily proper but also from homophily among coethnics of the same racial background and from balancing mechanisms such as the tendency to reciprocate friendships or to befriend the friends of friends, which both amplify the homogeneity effects of homophily. Then, they put the importance of racial homophily further into perspective by comparing its effects to those of other mechanisms of tie formation. Balancing, propinquity based on coresidence, and homophily regarding nonracial categories (e.g., students from “elite” backgrounds or those from particular states) all influence the tie formation process more than does racial homophily.





Commentary and Debate


Vox Regni? Underestimating the Role of the State in Radio Licensing Decisions: A Comment on Greve, Pozner, and Rao

Peter Hart-Brinson

Grinnell College





Vox Veritatis: Reply to Hart-Brinson

Henrich Greve


Jo-Ellen Pozner

University of California


Hayagreeva Rao

Stanford University





Book Reviews


Lives in Science: How Institutions Affect Academic Careers by Joseph C. Hermanowicz

Mary Frank Fox



Unanticipated Gains: Origins of Network Inequality in Everyday Life by Mario Small

Ray Reagans



The Culture of Punishment: Prison, Society, and Spectacle by Michelle Brown

William G. Staples



The Common Law in Two Voices: Language, Law, and the Postcolonial Dilemma in Hong Kong by Kwai Hang Ng

CelineMarie Pascale



The Politics of Imprisonment: How the Democratic Process Shapes the Way America Punishes Offenders by Vanessa Barker

David A. Green



Police Interrogation and American Justice by Richard A. Leo

Martin Innes



The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry into the Condition of Victimhood by Didier Fassin and Richard Rechtman

Veena Das



How It Works: Recovering Citizens in PostWelfare Philadelphia by Robert P. Fairbanks II

Leslie Paik



Fat Rights: Dilemmas of Difference and Personhood by Anna Kirkland

Darlene McNaughton



DES Daughters: Embodied Knowledge and the Transformation of Women’s Health Politics by Susan E. Bell

Laura Mamo



Gay Fatherhood: Narratives of Family and Citizenship in America by Ellen Lewin

Catherine Connolly



America’s Uneven Democracy: Race, Turnout, and Representation in City Politics by Zoltan L. Hajnal

Rory McVeigh



Achieving Anew: How New Immigrants Do in American Schools, Jobs, and Neighborhoods by Michael J. White and Jennifer E. Glick

Jennifer Lee



The Cubans of Union City: Immigrants and Exiles in a New Jersey Community by Yolanda Prieto

Guillermo J. Grenier



The Cubans of Union City: Immigrants and Exiles in a New Jersey Community by Yolanda Prieto

Guillermo J. Grenier



Ethnicity Inc. by John L. and Jean Comaroff

Jacques Henry



Reworking Race: The Making of Hawaii’s Interracial Labor Movement by MoonKie Jung

Sharmila Rudrappa



Marketing Dreams, Manufacturing Heroes: The Transnational Labor Brokering of Filipino Workers by Anna Romina Guevarra

Nicola Yeates



Organizing at the Margins: The Symbolic Politics of Labor in South Korea and the Unites States by Jennifer Jihye Chun

Veronica Terriquez



Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic by Amalia L. Cabezas

Mark B. Padilla



Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective by Karen Barkey

Fatma Müge Göçek



Secular Cycles by Peter Turchin and Sergey A. Nefedov

Brian J. L. Berry



The European Union and Global Social Change by József Böröcz

Chris Rumford



Islam, Migration, and Integration: The Age of Securitization by Ayhan Kaya

Robert J. Pauly, Jr.



Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism by Cihan Tuğal

Salwa Ismail



Blood and Culture: Youth, RightWing Extremism, and National Belonging in Contemporary Germany by Cynthia MillerIdriss

Nitzan Shoshan



Sex Discrimination and Law Firm Culture on the Internet: Lawyers at the Information Age Watercooler by Amanda K. Baumle

Christine Hine



Sex Discrimination and Law Firm Culture on the Internet: Lawyers at the Information Age Watercooler by Amanda K. Baumle

Christine Hine



Facing Mount Kenya by Jomo Kenyatta

Barbara Celarent